The government has slashed its spending of 0.7% of national income on aid, a 2019 Tory manifesto pledge, to 0.5%.
It triggered a backlash from a significant number of Tory MPs including ex-PM Theresa May and former cabinet ministers Andrew Mitchell and David Davis.
The rebels were hoping to use an amendment to legislation setting up the Advanced Research and Invention Agency to force the new body to make up the funding to meet the 0.7% goal from next year.
A vote would have taken place on Monday evening.
But Commons Speaker Lindsay Hoyle ruled that the amendment was too far outside the scope of the purpose of the bill, so there will be no vote.
Sources told HuffPost UK that the rebels could now try and force an emergency debate on the cut on Tuesday or Wednesday, which would have no impact on policy but could prove embarrassing for Johnson as he prepares hosts leaders from some of the world’s richest countries at the G7 summit in Cornwall this weekend.
The rebels are also unlikely to be allowed to reintroduce the amendment via the House of Lords, but one MP stressed: “The movement [for 0.7%] will continue.”
Mitchell, a former international development secretary and the rebel ringlead, said maintaining the 0.7% figure would have meant Johnson could meet G7 counterparts on Friday as “first among equals”.
“The eyes of the world are truly upon us. But in this moment Britain is found wanting, because we have removed a foundational piece of our own global leadership. Britain is the only G7 nation cutting aid this year,” he wrote in The Guardian.
Davis, a former Brexit secretary, told BBC Radio 4’s Today that the “harmful” and “devastating” cuts would result in deaths around the world.
There will be massive cuts in efforts to provide clean water, which will kill children worldwide, and in funding for food for starving people, where “again thousands will die”, he said.
“No other G7 country is cutting its aid in this way. It is going to have devastating consequences across the world. Historically, I am a critic of aid spending, but doing it this way is really so harmful.”
Some 1,700 charities, academics and business leaders jointly have written to the prime minister to warn that the UK’s “credibility and voice on the international stage will be undermined” just as he prepares to preside over the G7 gathering, which will include his first face-to-face meeting with US president Joe Biden.
The letter, with signatories including Oxfam GB and Save The Children, said the aid cuts are a “double blow” to the world’s poorest communities in the midst of a pandemic.